A Corpus-based Analysis of Conceptual Metaphors in “The Forty Rules of Love” by Elif Shafak


  • Muhammad Nadeem MPhil Scholar, Air University
  • Ayyaz Qadeer Assistant Professor (English), COMSATS University
  • Adnan Tahir Associate Professor (English), Govt. Emerson College


collocation, conceptual metaphors, emotions, genre, love


Present study focuses on writers’ attitude towards their treatment for metaphorical language in
their literary work. It also emphasizes metaphoric trends in the light of the conceptual metaphor
theory. Though metaphor has normally been treated as a figure of speech, it has been used for
multiple functions in literary pieces. Therefore, metaphors have become an important element in
literary writing which assists readers in the selection of appropriate reading for them. Lakoff and
Johnson (1980), contradict the traditional view of metaphors through the idea of conceptual
metaphors. A significant function of metaphors is to conceptualize emotions in everyday writing
and speech. Among other types of metaphors of basic human emotions “love” seems to be the
most highly metaphorized one (Kövecses, 2003). Exploration of metaphors has been given special
focus by the scholars in the literary genres. However, exploration of conceptual metaphors (Lakoff
and Johnson, 1980) has got less attention in the genre of the novel. The current study aims at the
analysis of proposed metaphors in Elif Shafak’s novel “The Forty Rules of Love”. The study is
conducted to explore the conceptual metaphors through quantitative and qualitative research by
using AntConc 3.5.8, a corpus-based analysis. It was further investigated through concordance
with right and left collocations. The KWIC (Keyword in Context) or concordances of the selected
words helped in providing the collocational patterns used in the novel for the conceptual
metaphors. The conceptual metaphors were identified manually in the text by using AntConc 3.5.8
tool. It was found that simple words were successfully used for metaphorical meanings in the
novel. The findings further reveal that these conceptual metaphors are also used to express the
emotional feelings.



How to Cite

Nadeem M, Qadeer A, Adnan Tahir AT. A Corpus-based Analysis of Conceptual Metaphors in “The Forty Rules of Love” by Elif Shafak. Corporum [Internet]. 2021Jan.18 [cited 2022May21];3(1):19-32. Available from: https://journals.au.edu.pk/ojscrc/index.php/crc/article/view/89