Submission Guidelines

Note: The journal charge no fee for submission and processing of manuscripts from authors.

Before submitting your manuscript to the journal, please make sure that it conforms to the following guidelines:

The manuscript should be submitted in two separate files: (1) the title page and (2) the main document.

1) Title Page

i. Short-running title (not more than 20 characters)

ii. Title of the Study (centre aligned, font size 16)

iii. Full names of Author(s), institutional affiliation (center-aligned, font size 9)

iv. The full contact details (postal address, email, and telephone) for the corresponding author;

v. Acknowledgements

2) Main Document

As articles are subject to a double-blind peer review process, the main document should not include any information that might identify the authors.

The main document file should be presented in the following order:

i. Title, abstract, and key words: Abstract should not be more than 200 words. Provide 3 to 5 keywords)

ii. Main text: Introduction, Literature Review, Methods, Results, Discussion (Conclusion, Implications, Limitations and future research direction).

iii. References.

iv. Tables (each table complete with title and footnotes. Number tables consecutively under their appearance in the text.)

v. Figure (provide caption and legends. Number figures consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text)

vi. Appendices (if relevant)

Headings and subheadings

Headings and subheadings should be differentiated by numbering in the following sequence: 1, 1.1, 1.1.1 etc. Please follow the APA heading format.


The body of the paper must be typed in Times New Roman with 12 font size, double-spaced, and should have margins of 1 inch top, down, left and right.


Footnotes should follow continuous numbering.

Manuscript length

Full-length article should not be more than 3000 to 7000 words (not be more than 30 pages, including figures, tables, exhibits, bibliography and annexures).

Referencing Style

JBE adhere to the American Psychological Association (APA) reference style. References should be provided according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition). In-text citations should adhere to the author-date style whereby the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Shah, 2019). For more than 3 others write "et al, (First and subsequent citations). The full reference list should appear alphabetically by name at the end of the paper. Please provide DOI for all references where available. Please read APA guidelines and make sure that your manuscript follows this format. Some examples of references and in-text citations are listed below:

In a reference list In-text citation
1. Book with one author
King, M. (2000). Wrestling with the Angel: A Life of Janet Frame. Auckland, New Zealand: Viking (King, 2000) or King (2000) compares Frame ...
2. Book with two to five authors (see Library APA referencing webpage for six or more authors)

Krause, K.-L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. (2006). Educational Psychology for Learning and Teaching (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic., Australia: Thomson. Use & between authors’ names, except when paraphrasing in text. When a work has three, four or five authors, cite all authors the first time, and in subsequent citations include only the first author followed by et al.

(Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne, 2006) then(Krause et al., 2006)

3. Book or report by a corporate author e.g. organization, association, government department

University of Waikato. (1967). First hall of residence (Information series No. 3). Hamilton, New Zealand: Author. When the author and the publisher are the same, use Author in the publisher field.

(University of Waikato, 1967) Some group authors may be abbreviated ins subsequent citations if they are readily recognizable.

4. Book chapter in edited book

Helber, L. E. (1995). Redeveloping Mature Resorts for New Markets. In M. V. Conlin & T. Baum (Eds.), Island Tourism: Management Principles and Practice (pp. 105-113). Chichester, England: John Wiley. Include the page numbers of the chapter after the book title.

(Helber, 1995) or Helber (1995) compares luxury resorts ...

5. Journal article – academic/scholarly (electronic version) with DOI (see also Library APA referencing webpage

Hohepa, M., Schofield, G., & Kolt, G. S. (2006). Physical Activity: What do High School Students Think? Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(3), 328-336. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.12.024 A capital letter is used for key words in the journal title. The journal title and volume number are italicized, followed by the issue number in brackets (not italicized).

(Hohepa, Schofield, & Kolt, 2006) then subsequently, if 3-5 authors (Hohepa, et al., 2006)

6. Journal article – academic/scholarly (electronic version) with no DOI

Harrison, B., & Papa, R. (2005). The Development of an Indigenous Knowledge Program in a New Zealand Maori-Language Immersion School. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 36(1), 57-72. Retrieved from ProQuest Education Journals database. Undergraduates: Give the name of the database. Researchers: Give the URL of the journal homepage. e.g. Retrieved from (Harrison & Papa, 2005)

or Harrison and Papa (2005) recommend ...

7. Journal article - academic/scholarly (print version)

Gibbs, M. (2005). The Right to Development and Indigenous Peoples: Lessons from New Zealand. World Development, 33(8), 1365-1378. (Gibbs, 2005)

or Gibbs (2005) contradicts ...

8. Journal article - academic/scholarly (Internet only – no print version)

Snel, D., & Hodgetts, D. (n.d.). The Psychology of Heavy Metal Communities and White Supremacy. Te Kura Kete Aronui, 1. Retrieved from (n. d.) = no date. For html version only, cite the paragraph number in text

(Snel & Hodgetts, n.d.) or Snel and Hodgetts (n.d.) suggest “...” (para. 3)

9. Magazine article – popular/trade/general interest

Goodwin, D. K. (2002, February 4). How I Caused that Story. Time, 159(5), 69. Full date is used for weekly magazines; month and year for monthly magazines

(Goodwin, 2002) or Goodwin (2002) defends ...

10. Web pages (When multiple web pages are referenced, reference the homepage)

Statistics New Zealand. (2007). New Zealand in Profile 2007. Retrieved from Author (could be organization), date (either date of publication or latest update), document title, date retrieved if contents are likely to change, URL

(Statistics New Zealand, 2007)