Open Access

JBE is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made available online immediately upon publication. The journal charges no fee for the submission and processing of manuscripts from authors. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the host institution (Air University, Islamabad) and funds are granted by the Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan. The journal allows readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allows readers to use them for any other lawful purpose. The journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- CC-BY 4.0 International License. This license enables reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The terms of the license can be accessed at: