Open Access

JBE is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication. Publication costs of the journal are covered by host institution (Air University, Islamabad) and funds granted by Higher Education Commission, (HEC) Pakistan. The journal allow readers to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allow readers to use them for any other lawful purpose. The journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Under the license terms you are free to:

  • Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material
  • for any purpose, even commercially.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.